Comparison of the Effect of Iranian Toothpaste Containing Propolis with a Common Toothpaste on Plaque Index

Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

3 Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran


Background and aim: Dental plaque is the main etiological factor in the development of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontal diseases. Antimicrobial agents in toothpaste can play an essential role in controlling and reducing microbial plaque. Herbex herbal toothpaste is the only Iranian toothpaste containing Propolis. This study aimed to compare the effect of this toothpaste with an ordinary toothpaste on the plaque index.
Material and methods: This double-blind cross-sectional clinical trial was performed on 46 dental students. The subjects were divided randomly into two groups of 23 individuals. Group 1 received treatment A or Herbex toothpaste (Iran) in the first period and treatment B or Crest anticavity regular toothpaste (Germany) in the second period. The primary and secondary plaque index was measured and compared using the O'leary index by the mean of disclosing tablets. To analyze the data, an independent T-test and Paired T-test used.
Results: Considering the data analysis, the mean difference between the primary and secondary plaque index in Herbex toothpaste was -6.813±5.749. In the Crest toothpaste, it was -7.341± 9.340 that was statistically significant in both types of toothpaste (P > 0.05). A comparison of two toothpaste types in terms of reducing the plaque index did not show a significant difference (P = 0.714).
Conclusion: Both types of toothpaste in the present study reduced the plaque index. There was no significant difference in terms of this reduction among the toothpaste containing Propolis and regular toothpaste.


Main Subjects

  1. Listgarten MA. Structure of the microbial flora associated with periodontal health and disease in man: a light and electron microscopic study. Journal of periodontology. 1976; 1;47(1):1-8.
  2. Fereidooni M, Khosravi Samani M, Amiri A, Seyed M, Haji Ahmadi M. Comparison of the effect of propolis and traditional toothpaste on bacterial plaque. Journal of Babol University Of Medical Sciences. 2014 Feb 15;16(2):17-22.
  3. Barnes VM, Richter R, DeVizio W. Comparison of the short-term antiplaque/antibacterial efficacy of two commercial dentifrices. J Clin Dent. 2010;21(4):101-4.
  4. Sadeghi M, Assar S. An in vitro antimicrobial activity of ten Iranian-made toothpastes. Dental research journal. 2009;6(2):87.
  5. Sharma NC, Galustians JH, Qaqish JG. An evaluation of a commercial chewing gum in combination with normal toothbrushing for reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, NJ: 1995). 2001 Jul;22(7A):13-7.
  6. Ebadifar A, Naghibi A, Valaie N, Ramezani GH, Sadat Mansori S. Comparing the three color pounehh tooth paste with the conventional one in preventing the formation of the microbial plaque. Journal of Dental Medicine. 2008 Nov 15;21(2):140-4.
  7. Yaghini J, Naghsh N, Tavakkoli M, Ghoreishi S, Azari A, Kiani S. Comparative evaluation of the amount of plaque control following toothbrushing with three kinds of toothpastes and brushing without toothpaste: A clinical trial. Beheshti Univ Dent J 2014; 32(1):48-54.
  8. Bhat N, Bapat S, Asawa K, Tak M, Chaturvedi P, Gupta VV, George PP. The antiplaque efficacy of propolis-based herbal toothpaste: A crossover clinical study. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine. 2015 Jul;6(2):364.
  9. Paulino N, Teixeira C, Martins R, Scremin A, Dirsch VM, Vollmar AM, Abreu SR, de Castro SL, Marcucci MC. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a Brazilian green propolis. Planta Medica. 2006 Aug;72(10):899-906.
  10. DE CAMPOS RO, PAULINO N, DA SILVA CH, SCREMIN A, CALIXTO JB. Natural Products: Anti‐hyperalgesic Effect of an Ethanolic Extract of Propolis in Mice and Rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1998 Oct;50(10):1187-93.
  11. Król W, Bankova V, Sforcin JM, Szliszka E, Czuba Z, Kuropatnicki AK. Propolis: properties, application, and its potential. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013.
  12. De Luca MP, Franca JR, Macedo FA, Grenho L, Cortes ME, Faraco AA, Moreira AN, Santos VR. Propolis varnish: antimicrobial properties against cariogenic bacteria, cytotoxicity, and sustained-release profile. BioMed research international. 2014;2014..
  13. Więckiewicz W, Miernik M, Więckiewicz M, Morawiec T. Does propolis help to maintain oral health?. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. 2013;2013.
  14. Ophori EA, Eriagbonye BN, Ugbodaga P. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(31):4966-9.
  15. Gavanji S, Larki B. Comparative effect of propolis of honey bee and some herbal extracts on Candida albicans. Chinese journal of integrative medicine. 2017 Mar 1;23(3):201-7.
  16. Ramos AF, Miranda JD. Propolis: a review of its anti-inflammatory and healing actions. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 2007;13(4):697-710.
  17. de Groot AC. Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects. Dermatitis. 2013 Nov 1;24(6):263-82.
  18. Wagh VD. Propolis: a wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials. Advances in pharmacological sciences. 2013;2013.
  19. Kuropatnicki AK, Szliszka E, Krol W. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013.
  20. Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH. Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: a comprehensive review of their biological actions and health benefits. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2017;2017.
  21. O'Leary TJ, Drake RB, Naylor JE. The plaque control record. Journal of periodontology. 1972 Jan 1;43(1):38.
  22. Naseh M, Gheibi N, Jahanihashemi H, Azizlou E, AlizadehTabari Z. The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Dental Plaque on Dentistry Students of Qazvin, Dental School. Journal of Mashhad Dental School. 2016;40(2):167-76.
  23. Fani MM, Kohanteb J, Araghizadeh A. Inhibitory activity of Myrtus communis oil on some clinically isolated oral pathogens. Medical Principles and Practice. 2014;23(4):363-8.
  24. Torkan S. Comparison of the Effects of an Herbal Mouthwash with Chlorhexidine on Surface Bacteria Counts of Dental Plaque in Dogs. Biosciences biotechnology research asia. 2015;12(1):955-9.
  25. Rakshanaa TR, Lakshmi T. Antibacterial efficacy of herbal mouthwash against oral microbes-in vitro assay. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research| Jan-Mar. 2017;7(1).
  26. Rashidian A, Shabahang Far M, Koohestani F, Afsharian Zadeh M. The comparison of the two toothpaste Darougar and Kam with Colgate on the dental plaque of the children. Dental Journal of Iranian Children.2012; 7(1): 24-30.
  27. Mofid R, Fathieh A, Alavi K, Zamiri M. evaluation and comparison of Iranian antibacterial toothpaste Nasim and Poune with Crest Complete toothpaste on the dental plaque control. Journal of Islamic Dental Society. 2005; 17(5):110-117.
  28. Moran J, Addy M, Corry D, Newcombe RG, Haywood J. A study to assess the plaque inhibitory action of a new zinc citrate toothpaste formulation. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2001 Feb 1;28(2):157-61.
  29. Giertsen E, Scheie AA, Rölla G. Plaque inhibition by a combination of zinc citrate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Caries research. 1989;23(4):278-83.
  30. Saxton CA, Harrap GJ, Lloyd AM. The effect of dentifrices containing zinc citrate on plaque growth and oral zinc levels. Journal of clinical periodontology. 1986 Apr;13(4):301-6.
  31. Hu D, Sreenivasan PK, Zhang YP, De Vizio W. The effects of a zinc citrate dentifrice on bacteria found on oral surfaces. Oral health & preventive dentistry. 2010 Jan 1;8(1).
  32. Naseh M, Gheibi N, Jahanihashemi H, Azizlou E, AlizadehTabari Z. The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Dental Plaque on Dentistry Students of Qazvin, Dental School. Journal of Mashhad Dental School. 2016;40(2):167-76.
  33. Rasaie N, Esfandiari E, Rasouli S, Abdolahian F. Antimicrobial Effect of Myrtus communis. L. Essential Oils Against Oral Microorganism. Jentashapir Journal of Health Research. 2017; 9(1): e12032.