Prevalence of Falciparum Malaria in Conjunction with Age, Gravidity, Abo Blood Group/Rhesus Factor, and Genotype Among Gravid Women in South-eastern Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

2 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

3 Faculty of Medicine, Nnewi Campus, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

4 Center for integrated health program, Abuja, Nigeria

5 Faculty of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya


Background and aim: The present research was done to determine the prevalence of falciparum malaria in relation to age, gravidity, blood group/rhesus factor, and genotype among gravid women attending Antenatal Clinic in 2 Primary Health Centres in Atani, Nigeria.
Materials and methods: This study was carried out from December 2020 to January 2021. A venous blood sample was collected from 150 gravid women selected by random sampling. Then, we prepared the thin and thick film, used Giemsa stain to stain it, and viewed it under the light microscope. ABO blood group and Hemoglobin genotype were obtained using standard methods. Moreover, statistical analyses were done by SPSS 23.
Results: The overall prevalence of malaria in our research samples equaled 59.4%, and the age group between 28-31 years exhibited the maximum prevalence of 33.0%, whereas the age group 16-19 years recorded the least prevalence with 2.3%. The prevalence of malaria in relation to gravidity showed that primigravida has the highest prevalence of 61.4%, while multigravida has the least prevalence of 38.6%. The blood group/rhesus factor demonstrated the greatest pervasiveness of the blood group O+ of 54.7%, while B- has the least prevalence of 0.0%. The prevalence of malaria in relation to genotype showed that HbAA has the highest prevalence of 62.6%, while the least prevalence was HbSSwith 4.5%. Prevalence values were statistically insignificant (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that malaria in pregnancy is endemic in Atani, Nigeria. The observed increased prevalence among pregnant women in this study could probably be due to the location of the study area in the riverine, favoring the breeding of Anopheles mosquito, a vector for malaria parasites. There is a need for serious advocacy and enlightenment of the populace on the prevalence and control measures of malaria transmission to curb the increased prevalence of malaria among gravid women.


Main Subjects

[1] Caraballo H, King K. Emergency department management of mosquito-borne illness: malaria, dengue, and West Nile virus. Emergency medicine practice. 2014;16(5):1-23.
[2] Awah FM, Chukwuemeka G, Olalekan SI, Azeke AE, Nneka M. A possible protective role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle haemoglobin genes against severe malaria in Madonna University, Elele Community. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2012;3(6):375-81.
[3] WHO. World malaria report 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2019.
[4] Emiasegen SE, Giwa FJ, Ajumobi O, Ajayi IO, Ahmed SA, Olayinka AT. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia among pregnant women: a health facility-based survey in Nassarawa-Eggon, Nigeria. Malaria World J. 2017;15(24):25-34.
[5] Federal Ministry of Health Report (FMHR), Malaria Situation Analysis Document. Nigeria Federal Ministry of Health, 2000.
[6] Akanbi OM, Odaibo AB, Olatoregun R, Ademowo AB. Role of malaria induced oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010;3(3):211-4.
[7] Bamou R, Sevidzem SL. ABO/Rhesus blood group systems and malaria prevalence among students of the University of Dschang, Cameroon. Microwave Journal. 2016;7(4):1-4.
[8] Kuadzi JT, Ankra-Badu G, Addae MM. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children at a tertiary teaching hospital: ABO blood group is a risk factor. Pan African Medical Journal. 2011;10(2). DOI: 10.4314/pamj.v10i0.72205.
[9] Ribacke U, Moll K, Albrecht L, Ismail HA, Normark J, Flaberg E, et al. Improved in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum permits establishment of clinical isolates with preserved multiplication, invasion and rosetting phenotypes. PloS one. 2013;8(7):e69781.
[10] Moll K, Palmkvist M, Ch'ng J, Kiwuwa MS, Wahlgren M. Correction: Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1. Plos one. 2016;11(2):e0149765.
[11] Vigan-Womas I, Guillotte M, Juillerat A, Hessel A, Raynal B, England P, et al. Structural basis for the ABO blood-group dependence of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(7):e1002781.
[12] Rowe JA, Handel IG, Thera MA, Deans AM, Lyke KE, Koné A, et al. Blood group O protects against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria through the mechanism of reduced rosetting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007;104(44):17471-6.
[13] Cholera R, Brittain NJ, Gillrie MR, Lopera-Mesa TM, Diakité SA, Arie T, et al. Impaired cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008;105(3):991-6.
[14] LaMonte G, Philip N, Reardon J, Lacsina JR, Majoros W, Chapman L, et al. Translocation of sickle cell erythrocyte microRNAs into Plasmodium falciparum inhibits parasite translation and contributes to malaria resistance. Cell host & microbe. 2012;12(2):187-99.
[15] Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Investigation of haematological disorders. Practical Haematology, Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 2006:177-80.
[16] Oluwagbemiga A, Bamidele A, Babatunde A, Chimere A, Medinat S, Olalekan R. Prevalence of malaria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in primary health centres in Lagos. South West, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research. 2018;25(12):1-9. DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39620.
[17] Jombo GT, Mbaawuaga EM, Ayegba AS, Araoye MA. Anaemia, malaria burden and its control methods among pregnant women in a semi-urban community of northern Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 2011;3(7):317-23.
[18] OnwutalobiAC. "Nnewi Industrialization overview - The Official Nnewi City Portal". Available from accessed 19thJanuary 2020).
[19] Ozougwu JC, Imakwu CA, Ekeleme JE, Okeke OP, Amana GU, Eziuzor SC, et al. Prevalence of Falciparum Malaria in Relation to Age, Gravidity, Trimester, Blood Group and Genotype among Pregnant Women. Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020;3(4):1-7.
[20]Akwuebu SO, Eze EM, Jeremiah ZA. changes in haematological parameters in malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women with varying haemoglobin genotypes. european journal of biomedical. 2018;5(12):464-76.
[21] Amala SE, Nwibani CP. Malaria in children, its association with abo blood group and haemoglobin genotype. International Journal of Development Research. 2015;5(11):5958-62.
[22] Gayathri BN, Harendra KM, Gomathi N, Jeevan S, Reethesh RP. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria with clinical outcome in rural area of South India. Glob J Med Public Health. 2013;2:1-7.
 [23] Singh G, Urhekar AD, Singh R. A study on correlation of malaria infection with A, B, O, RH blood group system. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology. 2015;7(4):67-73.
 [24] Taylor SM, Cerami C, Fairhurst RM. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(5):e1003327.
[25] Elliott DA, McIntosh MT, Hosgood HD, Chen S, Zhang G, Baevova P, et al. Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008;105(7):2463-8.