Prevalence of Falciparum Malaria in Conjunction with Age, Gravidity, Abo Blood Group/Rhesus Factor, and Genotype Among Gravid Women in South-eastern Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

2 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

3 Faculty of Medicine, Nnewi Campus, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

4 Center for integrated health program, Abuja, Nigeria

5 Faculty of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

Background and aim: The present research was done to determine the prevalence of falciparum malaria in relation to age, gravidity, blood group/rhesus factor, and genotype among gravid women attending Antenatal Clinic in 2 Primary Health Centres in Atani, Nigeria.
Materials and methods: This study was carried out from December 2020 to January 2021. A venous blood sample was collected from 150 gravid women selected by random sampling. Then, we prepared the thin and thick film, used Giemsa stain to stain it, and viewed it under the light microscope. ABO blood group and Hemoglobin genotype were obtained using standard methods. Moreover, statistical analyses were done by SPSS 23.
Results: The overall prevalence of malaria in our research samples equaled 59.4%, and the age group between 28-31 years exhibited the maximum prevalence of 33.0%, whereas the age group 16-19 years recorded the least prevalence with 2.3%. The prevalence of malaria in relation to gravidity showed that primigravida has the highest prevalence of 61.4%, while multigravida has the least prevalence of 38.6%. The blood group/rhesus factor demonstrated the greatest pervasiveness of the blood group O+ of 54.7%, while B- has the least prevalence of 0.0%. The prevalence of malaria in relation to genotype showed that HbAA has the highest prevalence of 62.6%, while the least prevalence was HbSSwith 4.5%. Prevalence values were statistically insignificant (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that malaria in pregnancy is endemic in Atani, Nigeria. The observed increased prevalence among pregnant women in this study could probably be due to the location of the study area in the riverine, favoring the breeding of Anopheles mosquito, a vector for malaria parasites. There is a need for serious advocacy and enlightenment of the populace on the prevalence and control measures of malaria transmission to curb the increased prevalence of malaria among gravid women.

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