Document Type : Original Article
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Background and aim: Prevalence of cleft lip and palate varies across geographical location, races, and ethnic groups. The global prevalence is 1 per 700 live births. We aim to establish the prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics of patients with an orofacial cleft, and associated deformities in our locality.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of all the patients with cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), or cleft lip/palate (CLP) managed over 12 years (2009 to 2020). A uniform Smile Train® structured interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by the Surgeons was used to obtain relevant information. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.
Results: A total of 280 patients were managed for cleft lip and palate deformities during this period. The estimated total live births during the period were 232,168; a prevalence rate of 0.8 per 1000 live births was thus calculated. The most common type of cleft deformity in our study is CLP (61.4%), followed by isolated CP (20.7%) and then CL (17.9%). CLP was shown to be more common among males (66.1%). However, isolated CP and CL were more common among females at 67.2% and 56%. The most common associated anomalies were speech (52.8%) and growth retardation (9.6%). The least common was limb anomalies (0.7%).
Conclusion: Our study has generated new knowledge of the epidemiological distribution of orofacial cleft deformities in our subregion made possible by the Smile Train® database. It will enable more comprehensive management of orofacial clefts.